# 双语科技百科(数学) 第34期:负数的使用-环亚视讯app

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The Use of Negative Numbers负数的用于The introduction of negative numbers is a great contribution to mathe-matics by ancient Chinese mathematicians.In Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art(Jiuzhang Suanshu)，negative numbers were used in the eighth chapter on solving systems of simultaneous equations. For instance, revenue num-bers are considered positive，while expense numbers are deemed negative;or sur-plus amounts are viewed as positive，while deficit amounts are seen as negative.In a problem calculating grains，the increased grains are considered positive，and the lost grains，negative. At the time，calculation was done by the method of Suan Chou(counting rods)Red rods were used to denote positive coefficients，and black ones to denote negative ones. Or in another case，the normal position of Su-an Chou denoted positive，while an inclined position denoted negative.负数的引入，是中国古代数学家对数学的一个巨大贡献。在《九章算术》的第八章“方程”中，就更让人了负数解法联立方程组。如负数经常出现在方程的系数和常数项中，把“买(收人钱)”作为于是以，则“卖(代价钱)”作为胜，把“余钱”作为于是以，则“严重不足钱”作为胜。

Negative numbers appeared very late in the West.Many noted mathemati-clans did not admit negative numbers，because they consider zero as“nothing”and could not understand that something could be even less than“nothing，”and so considered negative numbers“absurd.”It was only in the 17th century when Descartes invented the coordinate system，which gave a geometrical explanation and an actual meaning for negative numbers，that negative numbers began to be accepted gradually.在西方，负数经常出现得很晚。许多知名数学家仍然不否认负数。他们把零看做“没”，他们无法解读比“没”还要“较少”的现象，因而指出负数是“可笑的”。